CAT and Volcano Theatre set to host major international arts and sustainability event this September.

From 1st – 9th September CAT will host Emergence Summit 2012: Creating the Future, a major international arts and sustainability event presented by VOLCANO THEATRE and the CENTRE FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY at CAT’s site in Machynlleth, mid-Wales.

The Summit comprises two parts: an international weekend conference of leaders, thinkers and visionaries; and a five-day Land Journey on foot through Wales culminating at the conference.

The Summit brings CAT’s pioneering work on low-carbon infrastructure together with Volcano Theatre’s work on developing the role of the arts as a crucible of ideas and visions for a sustainable society. Curated, designed and produced by Fern Smith (Volcano Theatre), Lucy Neal, Jenny MacKewn and Paul Allen (CAT), the Summit will explore, exemplify and embed the role of the arts in the transition to a sustainable future. Speakers, contributors and artist interventions include Robert Newman, Phakama UK, Sue Gill and John Fox, Simon Whitehead, Sarah Woods, Touchstone Collaborations, Pete Telfer (Culture Colony), Ansuman Biswas, Nick Capaldi (Arts Council Wales), Patricia Shaw, Miranda Tufnell and Paul Allen and Peter Harper from CAT.

‘This is a unique opportunity for individuals from all disciplines to converge and explore their vision for a sustainable future, escaping the dominant dystopian vision of our future, instead developing a positive, solution-focused and practically achievable vision for the transition to a more sustainable society’ Paul Allen, Centre for Alternative Technology

From 1st – 6th September over 30 delegates will attend the five-day Land Journey across Wales curated by Welsh artist Simon Whitehead. The Land Journey invites walkers to traverse the land in unfamiliar ways developing a deepened dialogue, concentration and reflection of the things we take for granted. Embedding sustainability into the personal and collective journeys of the Land Journey, artists and cuisinières Touchstone Collaborations will be providing locally and ethically sourced food, and the walk will be facilitated by Lucy Neal and Jenny MacKewn.

The Land Journey culminates at the conference. The Emergence conference Creating the Future will see 200 participants take part in a three day event of workshops, discussions, creative practice, performance and presentation between 7th – 9th September.

‘Taking the conceptual form of a sine wave, the conference aims to not only discuss and debate change, but becomes a vehicle for change itself. Participants are invited to take a journey individually and together with other participants to explore our collective issues and find solutions to emerge into a new way of being, doing and making.’ Fern Smith, Volcano Theatre

The Summit will be documented by Pete Telfer of Culture Colony and streamed through the BBC and Arts Council collaborative project ‘the Space’.

Registration for Emergence opens to the public on Monday 23rd July. Individuals can register via the Emergence website.


CAT’s Energy Day to celebrate positive change towards a brighter energy future


This August 8th CAT will host Energy Day as part of its six-week Festival of the Future. Energy Day aims to celebrate positive change towards a brighter future with a family-oriented day of interactive energy workshops, panel discussions with leading environmental thinkers, presentations from CAT experts, talks, and energy-themed kids activities and games.

August 8th will see CAT transformed for this one-day event exploring energy and its role in shaping our lives into the future. Visitors will get to grips with renewable technologies in ‘behind-the-scenes’ tours of CAT’s on-site renewables. Householders can discover more about how they can make small, achievable changes in their homes and communities to support the transition to a more sustainable and energy efficient society. Friends of the Earth and Practical Action will contextualise the energy debate in talks on the UK’s energy policy and renewable energy and development, and the Guardian’s John Vidal will lead an insightful panel discussion on our energy futures.

CAT’s own Zero Carbon Britain research team and experts will be on hand to discuss sustainable solutions to our current energy scenario, whilst renewable energy companies and representatives from community energy projects will be here to share their industry experience.

The day will also be packed full of entertainment for children and young people. Energy-themed workshops and activities will take place throughout the day, and specially designed wide-games for kids and adults will be taking place across the CAT site. There will also be film screenings, music from a bike-powered sound system and pizza fresh from a wood-fired earth pizza oven.

CAT’s External Relations director, Paul Allen, said “re-thinking energy offers us a wide range of new opportunities, not least in terms of employment. Careers in both energy saving and generation from renewable energy sources offer exciting opportunities and can encourage young people to explore science, technology, engineering and maths whilst also working to protect the planet.”

While currently only a small amount of our energy originates from renewable sources, public support for renewable energy is growing. CAT’s Energy Day celebrates the small changes we can all make towards building a brighter and sustainable future together.

Visit Festival of the Future: Six weeks of fun and inspiration at CAT


Today we unveil our summer plans: CAT will be hosting a six week ‘Festival of the Future’ for tens of thousands of visitors. Daily activities for all the family and a programme of special one-day events mean a day trip to the Centre for Alternative Technology this August could inspire a revolution in the way you live.

Festival of the Future takes place throughout the school summer holidays from 21st July until 31st August. Daily activities will incorporate creative renewable energy and sustainability themed activities for children, with talks and informative tours led by staff and researchers at CAT for adults. Every Wednesday will see special events for kids and adults such as storytelling and specialist tours of CAT’s renewable energy systems.

Two one-day special events will form the climaxes of the summer programme: Energy Day on the 8th August and an Arts and Sustainability Fair on the 29th August. Both days will be packed full of informative and inspiring activities and entertainment including stalls, music, workshops, storytelling, exhibitions, guest speakers and more, all themed around building a brighter, more sustainable future for the UK and beyond.

We will be posting a series of articles on the blog on the theme of Festival of the Future.

This packed summer programme aims to provide a fun and active day out for families and other visitors to CAT, but also to give people ideas about the positive contribution they can make to a sustainable future.

Visitors will be able to meet face to face with some of the experts from CAT who will be giving guided tours and hosting engaging discussions about eco-lifestyle changes and action that people can take in their own community to respond to bigger picture challenges.

Allan Shepherd, author of CAT’s latest book The Home Energy Handbook will be one of the CAT staff members talking to visitors. Allan said:

“There are loads of positive things that people can do to help build more sustainable communities that are fun to take part in. Festival of the Future is a great opportunity for people to come and learn a bit more about sustainable futures as well as picking up tips on everything from eco-friendly living to getting involved in your local community. It should be entertaining as well as inspiring.”

All the events going on as part of Festival of the Future are included in the normal CAT entrance fee. The Visitor Centre also has a restaurant serving delicious vegetarian food and a shop selling books and gifts. A full programme of Festival of the Future events, which run from 21st July to 31st August, can be found on the website: Festival of the Future is sponsored by Good Energy, the UK’s only 100% renewable electricity supplier.



Zero Carbon Britain recognised as ‘inspirational’ in RenewableUK’s inaugural Energy Awards


The Centre for Alternative Technology’s pioneering project Zero Carbon Britain has been recognised in RenewableUK’s first Energy Awards

Zero Carbon Britain receieved the Renewables Campaigner Award, which recognises “campaigning excellence and leadership in winning public support for renewable energy.” The project, which is now entering a new phase of research, provides a clear policy framework for rapidly decarbonising the UK.

RenewableUK described the project as “an inspirational movement for change in the UK,” celebrating its positive, practical message in a ceremony in London on Wednesday night.

Paul Allen, Project Co-Ordinator for Zero Carbon Britain, said that “as the Rio+20 conference reminds us all of the urgent need to rise to our environmental challenges, the Centre for Alternative Technology us proud that our Zero Carbon Britain research has been recognised by the prestigious RenewableUK Energy Awards.

Integrating cutting edge research across a wide range of sectors, Zero Carbon Britain explores our options for rising to the scale and speed of the challenges defined by our most recent science. It clearly illustrates the parallel de-carbonisation and re-vitalisation of the UK’s economy, creating a single document of immediate relevance to citizens, communities, businesses and policy makers everywhere.”

Maria McCaffery, RenewableUK Chief Executive, said “we created these awards to receognise and celebrate excellence in the wind and marine energy industries. The extraordinarily high calibre of the winners, and indeed of the all those nominated, shows there is a great deal to celebrate. The awards pay tribute to these inspiring examples of tenacity and success.”

We need more engineers for the growing renewable sector

“We need more engineers for the growing renewable sector,” says the Centre for Alternative Technology after five years of teaching renewable energy.

As the Centre for Alternative Technology (CAT) celebrates its fifth generation of graduates from their renewable energy masters course, they are warning of a growing skills gap in building the green economy.

In the five years since CAT set up one of the first renewable energy masters courses in the UK, the renewable energy industry has grown massively. Between 2007 and 2010, government figures show that the total capacity of onshore wind power installed in the UK has almost doubled, and there is more than three times as much offshore wind. The amount of solar PV capacity has ballooned from 18MW in 2007 to almost 600MW at then end of 2011. There are already around 8,600 jobs in the wind industry alone, and predictions this could rise to more than 11,600 jobs under government projections.

Arthur Butler, tutor on the MSc Renewable Energy and the Built Environment (REBE) course at CAT said:

“There is a growing demand for engineers with the skills to install and maintain the renewable capacity we need to build the green economy that the UK has already signed up to. At CAT most of of the teachers on our popular masters degree programmes still practice as consultants and specialists within the industry meaning they are always up-to-date with developing technologies and practices.

“Current UK and European Union energy policy is committed to increasing the proportion of energy we use from renewable sources; this not only assists to increase energy security and reduce emissions, but also creates investment and job opportunities within the renewable energy sector. From planning, consultancy, manufacturing, engineering, construction, operations and start-up companies there is a wide range of employment prospects within the industry.

“On the course students receive their lectures from leading professionals. There is a strong emphasis on practical skills alongside theoretical work meaning that people complete the course with the skills they need to jump straight into employment.”

Students at CAT’s graduate school of the environment achieve extremely high academic standards as well as very relevant practical skills. 99 students submitted theses for assessment in June, over 70% of them achieved a merit or a distinction. The courses are accredited by the University of East London.

Richard West is a current student on the Renewable Energy and the Built Environment course. Before taking the course he worked in IT but he is taking the course part time alongside working in the construction industry in a technical role. He said:

“I’ve never had a job that is any way worthwhile until now. I never had a job that I felt made the world any better – this gives me the potential to do that.

“All the people here who are involved in the course have practical experience of actually working with the technologies that they are teaching us about. They are not geeks from universities who have learned about these things and are teaching us from text books. The are actually engineers who live in the real world, who consult on commercial situations and who understand how things change because they work in this world. They also understand all the regulatory changes because they are affected by them every day and they pass it onto us.

“The diversity of students is incredible. They are different ages – everything from recent graduates to retires. We’ve got people with an enormously broad spectrum of world experience and work experience and they all bring something to the table and you can learn something from all of them so just sitting round chatting to them is absolutely fascinating.”

Becca graduated last year and used the course to get back into the engineering industry after a break from the sector. She said:

“I put a CV out on a job site and one of the job agencies came back to me and said ‘how would you feel about doing some more studying – one of the companies is quite interested in you but you have been out of engineering a long time’. And I said ‘Yeah – I’d take their hand off’ and then I thought god, I actually meant that.

“I started work a couple of weeks after I did my first REBE module with a building services firm… since I graduated I’ve moved into the climate change and renewables team. So I’m still doing some buildings energy, using my existing knowledge on that, but I’m getting to do more specific renewable energy and also carbon management programmes. I’ve been involved in BREEAM looking at the more big picture sustainability stuff looking at things from every angle.

“I’ve recommended the course to one of my colleagues and they are now looking at doing it too.

“It gives me a chance to do something that I find fulfilling and meaningful.”

The REBE programme was developed in response to a real need for engineers to be trained theoretically and practically in renewable systems as they relate to the built environment. This is a growth area not only in Europe but through out the world as countries face up to the problems of fossil fuel depletion and climate change. The graduates of this programme are well equipped to meet these challenges.

Love WISE? We need you now!

If, like us, you think the principles of practical sustainability that WISE is based on are important, please vote for us in the National Lottery awards.

You can vote for us here, over the phone on 0844 836 9698.

We have been shortlisted as one of the best environmental projects that the National Lottery funded last year, for our outstanding sustainability education building WISE.

The Wales Institute for Sustainable Education (WISE) is our award winning experimental eco-building where the principles that CAT is founded on are showcased. WISE provides an inspirational residential learning space for diverse groups to come and learn about practical solutions to environmental problems and aims to inspire, inform and enable people to adopt environmentally sustainable living and working practices. WISE benefits thousands of people each year who, through visiting CAT, gain the skills and the motivation to adopt sustainable living and working practices.

Kit Jones, a member of staff at CAT said: “WISE is an educational building that inspires everyone who knows it, be they students, young people, builders, architects, professionals, community groups or politicians. I am delighted it has been short listed; it is a credit to all those people and a recognition of the importance of the green economy and society they are trying to create. WISE is a unique teaching space up for the challenge of inspiring that green economy – finally the importance of the ideas being discussed is reflected in the quality of the space they are being taught in.”

Click here to find out about studying in WISE. Click here to find out about using WISE as a venue for conferences, meetings, training, events or weddings.

Fundraiser Eleanor Farnworth explains how environmental education building WISE has made a huge difference: “Each year WISE hosts up to 600 people on environmental courses. Prior to its construction, accommodation, lecturing and laboratory space at CAT was stretched to the limit. Students at WISE now benefit from appropriate facilities, a captivating learning environment, and complete immersion in a committed environmental centre with sustainability at its core.

“It also provides a beautiful environmentally-conscious social and event space. A programme of free informative tours of the building is offered, and it hosts environmental festivals for the public, such as an environmental food festival in summer 2011 which attracted around 1,000 people over two days. The Welsh Government launched their Climate Strategy for Wales here, and the building provides a venue for volunteer and student social events as well as the lively CAT Members’ conference.

“WISE also acts as a test-bed for green building and energy technologies. The load-bearing curved rammed earth walls are the first of their kind in the world and the building includes various experimental airtightness and insulating techniques and incorporated monitoring equipment. The experimental aspects of WISE will be of great benefit to environmental and architectural knowledge. A PhD student is currently studying the ecological impacts of the construction processes, and dozens of postgraduate students have carried out research projects on the site. The findings will therefore benefit people and places into the future.”

A chance to find out more about our sustainable postgraduate courses…


On June 22nd, we’ll be running another of our popular open days offering prospective students the chance to find out more about our masters course in renewable energy and the built environment.

The course, which is taught with an unique combination of academic study and practical experimentation, explores the theory and practices of renewable energy technologies with special reference to the built environment. It’s aimed at those interested in becoming more knowledgeable about the benefits and drawbacks of the major renewable energy technologies, including biomass, solar photovoltaics, wind power, solar thermal and hydro electricity.

Leanda, a student who has worked in the construction industry in Bristol for the past seven years, has been writing about the modules and her experiences at the Graduate School of the Environment on her blog. She says “one of my favourite things about this course is the people on it. You get to know them so much better than you would on a standard university course. The course is pretty intense; you spend a lot of time time with each other. However, I’m lucky to be surrounded by such great people. No-one else at home would engage in conversations with me about the possibility of harnessing power in a giant hampster wheel. Big ideas have to start somewhere!”

The open day will give anyone interested in joining the course the opportunity to meet students and lecturers and explore the unique study environment that is CAT. Visitors will be given an introduction to the course, an update on the jobs market and the experiences of past students, a site tour of CAT with all its fascinating displays of renewable energy systems and the chance to sit in on lectures.

For more information, head to, where the schedule for the day will shortly be available. Email if you’d like to book a place.

New book from CAT provides a manifesto for the community energy revolution


On June 7th the Centre for Alternative Technology publishes what Transition movement founder Rob Hopkins has described as a ‘manifesto’ for a revolution in home and community energy. The Home Energy Handbook will increase community participation in energy projects, deepen social resilience and help to re-direct the profits of energy production back to the households and communities that generate, save and use it.

Based on progressive social values and tried-and-tested environmentally responsible technologies The Home Energy Handbook is the first practical book to cover all the key areas of home and community energy in one volume; from mapping out the great energy challenges of the 21st Century, through calculating and cutting your carbon emissions, to implementing practical energy projects in your home and community.

Rob Hopkins has described The Home Energy Handbook as “a hugely valuable resource for individuals, households, communities and local and national decision makers”.

“No other book offers such a complete and dedicated guide to all the major energy saving and renewable energy generation technologies, whilst showing how these technologies can be used to create social change,” says Allan Shepherd, co-author and publisher. “It is a powerful tool for anyone who wants to regain control of their energy future.

The Home Energy Handbook features ten inspiring case studies that show how community focused energy projects enhance living standards, cut carbon emissions and create community cohesion and resilience. Some also show how money earned from electricity generation can be used to support community services, cut fuel poverty and create employment opportunities.

Case studies include a self-build housing scheme in Bristol, a renewable energy scheme in the Scottish islands and a community woodland project in rural Lincolnshire. Technologies covered include: solar PV and thermal, insulation, energy efficiency, biomass wood fuel, heat pumps, ventilation, passive solar, combined heat and power, wind- and hydro power.

Please contact for review copies, pdfs, interviews, extracts or any media enquiries related to the book. 01654 705980
Contact for general media enquiries about CAT. 01654 705 952

Editor’s Notes

The Home Energy Handbook: A guide to saving and generating energy in your home and community

Allan Shepherd, Paul Allen, Peter Harper, Nicky Ison, Jarra Hicks

ISBN 9781902175713, 224pp, 189×246 mm, full colour, fully illustrated, £19.95

• The Authors: Allan Shepherd has written over 15 books, including The Organic Garden (a Daily Telegraph ‘Book of the year’) and 52 Weeks to Change Your World. Peter Harper is Head of CAT’s Research and Innovation department and co-author of Zero Carbon Britain 2030. Paul Allen is Director of CAT’s Zero Carbon Britain project and sits on the Science Advisory Council for Wales. Nicky Ison and Jarra Hicks are community renewable energy specialists.

• Endorsement: “The Home Energy Handbook helps communities and householders take control of their energy destiny with its fresh attitude, positive outlook and creative mix of practical information and inspiring case studies. Innovative and life-changing.” – Caroline Lucas, Green MP for Brighton Pavilion.

• Endorsement: “The Home Energy Handbook is a hugely valuable resource for individuals, households, communities and local and national decision makers. There is a revolution afoot in terms of how we imagine energy generation. This is its manifesto.” – Rob Hopkins, founder of the Transition movement.

• The Home Energy Handbook has been published with the support of the Carnegie Foundation and printed with support from Good Energy. For information about Good Energy contact

• The Centre for Alternative Technology is a leading environmental education centre based in mid-Wales striving to reach a realistic, achievable sustainable future through the dissemination of knowledge and skills for sustainability across all levels and disciplines. CAT is home to the Graduate School for the Environment, the Zero Carbon Britain project and the Wales Institute for Sustainable Education. Contact for general media enquiries about CAT.

CAT Publications publishes a range of renewable energy, environmental building and ecological books.

CAT pioneers sustainable transport options with new electric vehicle charging points


Visitors to the Centre for Alternative Technology will have a new sustainable transport option from this week. Anyone driving an electric vehicle will be able to refuel free of charge using a mix of renewable electricity generated on site and bought through the grid. The two electric vehicle charging points are part of a network of public charge points around the UK operated by Zero Carbon World.

The Centre for Alternative Technology tries to encourage visitors to travel to the site sustainably. People who travel to the site by train get in for half price and there is also a discount for cyclists. These new electric charge points will be available free of charge for students, conference visitors and the general public.

CAT Engineer, Jaise Kuriakose, said “We can’t continue to burn polluting fossil fuels to transport ourselves around. Electric vehicles can be run using renewable electricity and are an important part of our vision for a Zero Carbon Britain. It is fantastic to be able to offer visitors to CAT this new service. This cutting edge technology means there is one more way for people to travel to CAT sustainably and it puts this part of Mid Wales on the electric vehicle map for the first time.”

The transport sector currently accounts for almost a third of UK greenhouse gas emissions; cars are the biggest source of these emissions. Electric vehicles produce about half the carbon dioxide per mile compared to petrol or diesel vehicles under the current grid mix. This could decrease to near zero as renewable sources replace coal and gas in the electricity mix. At CAT 100% of the electricity comes from renewable sources either generated on site by the hydro turbines, windmills and the large array of solar panels or bought from green electricity supplier Good Energy.


AT@40: Reflections on the 40th anniversary celebrations of the Alternative Technology movement


Paul Allen, CAT’s External Relations Director, writes about a recent gathering in London celebrating forty years of the alternative technology movement.

Over the weekend I took the train down to the Architecture Association in London’s Bedford Square to join ‘AT@40 – the past and future of alternative technology.‘ I’ve been inspired and motivated by alternative technology since my late teens, so it was a real pleasure to explore 40 years of radical technologies with the people who made it all happen. Today, after a couple of decades of big wind and a massive increase in the scale and variety of renewable technologies as well as a wide array of incentives, it’s important that we pause and remember just how radical and brave it was to re-think the role of science and technology back in the early 1970s.

The rise of alternative technology has been a much-underestimated shift in humanity’s socio technical evolution. Several speakers (such as author David Dickson) cited the 1968 Paris up-risings as a key tipping point. Before that shift, science and technology were predominantly associated with progress, improvements in standards of living and things getting better. Scientists – even nuclear scientists – were heroes. However, after the uprisings, real questions were being asked about the limits to material growth, damage to nature and eventual depletion of resources.

However, the students leading the uprisings were from the arts, humanities, and social sciences – so in the wake of the disturbances there was pressure on the technologists to contribute to the dialogue. This exploration led to many new movements broadly centered around re-thinking the road which science is taking us on, eventually leading to a key conference at the Architecture Association in 1972. It was at this conference that Peter Harper coined the phrase ‘Alternative Technology’ to describe the movement’s re-evaluation of the role of technology.

Alternative Technology focuses on the benefit to humans as well as to economies. It’s not just solar and wind power, but rather the conceptual framework which can encompass it, including shifts in values which can open up understanding and control to citizens and communities, challenge market control, work towards global equity and challenge gender inequalities and prejudices.

The day included a wide range of presentations from key innovators, including – of course – marvellous tales of heroic invention from Peter Frankel’s confessions of a mad innovator to Derek Taylor’s Rational Technology Unity. We heard tales of African windpumps, Mongolian nomadic windturbines, verical axis windpower, horizontal axis windpower, v type and h type designs, Stirling engines, Darious blades design right down to the rise of power electronics and load controllers. It was a magnificent display of human ingenuity and accompanied by an awe-inspiring array of pioneering historic images.

However, it wasn’t all techno-talk. Both Peter Harper and Godfrey Boyle highlighted the vital value of self-scrutiny and rigor. Like many concepts, its willing supporters gave it magical powers that allowed it to offer all sorts of unlikely and unrealistic benefits, but by a rigorous approach of ‘doing the numbers’ Alternative Technology managed to self-audit and so, to an extent, limit any fantasy factory, whilst also taking on a chameleon-like ability to evolve and develop.

Looking back at the last 40 years offered us all an incredibly useful chance to take the long-view over time and see what has and hasn’t changed since 1972. From Godfrey’s analysis the thing that jumped out is the trebling of population since 1972 and the fact it looks set to rise to nine billion; to compound this, if all 9 billion aspire to join a new middle class the exponential ecological impact will be off the scale.

This led to a wide recognition from many of the day’s speakers that the new urgency of the climate crisis has awoken us from complacency of the 80s and 90s. We don’t have long to act, and there is much to be gained from narrowing down a wide range of aspirations to using carbon reduction as the key metric for directing the best path forwards, and it is a great match with many other value shifts.

Ex-CAT director Pete Raine helped us all see how far we have come in 40 years, by pointed out that Alternative Technology has wormed its way into the cultural consciousness and become normalised. We have to keep in mind that by moving into the mainstream, we play by mainstream rules and embrace mainstream values.

My question to the panel was one of gender balance. I was pleased to see the early Cliff Harper pen drawings which had inspired my youth – showing rows of terraced houses with shared spaces for growing food, baking bread and even a community sauna. But I was concerned that we were all looking proudly at another of his inspiring pen drawings showing an engineering workshop run by women, but not openly questioning the fact that this event had attracted 92% males and there were no women at all as speakers – surely a movement seeking to democratise technology must seek to achieve gender balance? However no one seemed to have any clear explanation for me!

The array of speakers ended with some younger new radical voices. Trystan Lee helped us explore how the move from a wide range of aspirations to one (carbon) metric can still benefit from linking with the ‘open source’ movement, which is in many ways a natural descendent of AT. His example was an open source energy monitor that offers us a tool to help communities see their energy differently. Over the last 3 years a great many people have been these building energy monitors around the world, contributing, whilst also growing and developing the design. I could already see the Cliff Harper drawing – a village workshop of 3-d printers manufacturing hi-tech electronics for community energy control.

The day left me feeling inspired by what I had heard, the pioneering of new attitudes and approaches to technology is a really interesting narrative, and deserves further exploration and archiving well before all the old slides and vhs tapes get lost and it all moves from living memory. I felt we quickly need to establish and on-line digital sanctuary where people can up-load important historical documents, images and film. This story is every bit as intriguing as the rise of the canals, or the coming of the motorways; telling the tale may well help to engage and inspire more young mind of both genders to take up the baton.

Things will change whether we are pro-active or not. Renewable energy will grow – but we need the seize the opportunity to gain community control and localise the benefits.

First they ignore you, then they fight you, then you win. – Ghandi